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The word hippie was also used in reference to Philadelphia in at least two popular songs in 1963: South Street by The Orlons, In both songs, the term is applied to residents of Philadelphia's South Street.
Although the word hippies made other isolated appearances in print during the early 1960s, the first use of the term on the West Coast appeared in the article "A New Paradise for Beatniks" (in the San Francisco Examiner, issue of September 5, 1965) by San Francisco journalist Michael Fallon.
By the 1940s, both had become part of African American jive slang and meant "sophisticated; currently fashionable; fully up-to-date".
The Beats adopted the term hip, and early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation.
In a 1961 essay, Kenneth Rexroth used both the terms hipster and hippies to refer to young people participating in black American or Beatnik nightlife.
Andrew Loog Oldham refers to "all the Chicago hippies," seemingly in reference to black blues/R&B musicians, in his rear sleeve notes to the 1965 LP The Rolling Stones, Now!
By 1965, hippies had become an established social group in the U.
S., and the movement eventually expanded to other countries, Hippie culture spread worldwide through a fusion of rock music, folk, blues, and psychedelic rock; it also found expression in literature, the dramatic arts, fashion, and the visual arts, including film, posters advertising rock concerts, and album covers.
The first signs of modern "proto-hippies" emerged in fin de siècle Europe.
In later years, mobile "peace convoys" of New Age travelers made summer pilgrimages to free music festivals at Stonehenge and elsewhere.
In Australia, hippies gathered at Nimbin for the 1973 Aquarius Festival and the annual Cannabis Law Reform Rally or Mardi Grass.
In Greenwich Village in the early 1960s, New York City, young counterculture advocates were named hips because they were considered "in the know" or "cool", as opposed to being square.
In the April 27, 1961 issue of The Village Voice, "An open letter to JFK & Fidel Castro", Norman Mailer utilizes the term hippies, in questioning JFK's behavior.